world war E
dispatches from the network society

pitched battles 1986-2007

The Economist lists some of the volleys lobbed during the brief history of cyberwarfare:

1986: Soviet hackers attack Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California.

1998: A Russian hacker infiltrates NASA, potentially endangering a shuttle mission.

1999: The NATO bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade unleashes a cyber-assault on U.S. government sites.

2000: Arab and Israeli cyber-guerrillas exchange volleys.

2001: The U.S. spy plane fiasco in China sparks a brief cyber-skirmish.

2007: U.S. Naval Network Warfare Command accuses China of cyber-espionage.

Of the most recent event, U.S. naval officials expressed the following sentiments about cyberwarfare’s implications for the network society:

In the end, the cyberthreat is revolutionary because it has no battle lines, the intelligence is intangible, and attacks come without warning, leaving no time to prepare defenses. Education and training of computer users, not enforcement, are the most effective defense measures.

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